Personnel selection is the most crucial step in the human resource management, since each error comes at a price. The professional policy in the field of personnel selection is created for defining principles, methods and criteria for the employees’ selection and their subsequent adaptation, which are necessary for quality performance of the specified functions, consolidation methodology and professional development of the staff. Thus, the given work reviews the main stages of the construction of staff selection system, describes external and internal sources of recruitment and analyzes their strengths and weaknesses. The paper, also, examines active and passive methods of hiring and considers problems during this process. And, finally, the work studies the specific features of the recruitment and selection of personnel in the USA. The modern technologies of personnel selection are an extremely important field of study in nowadays society, as they provide managers with the significant knowledge, which could help to improve not only applicant’s performance but the whole work of the organization.
Personnel recruitment is a set of specific actions aimed at candidates attracting. Its purpose is the timely and high-quality hiring according to the needs of the company. Modern and efficient recruitment procedure, according to Menke, B., Zupan, L., & Lovrich, N., should include several successive stages. The first stage is the pre-selection of candidates on the ground of the submitted documents. The second step is an assembled examination. And, finally, the third stage is an interview with a potential supervisor.
The principle form of the acquaintance with an applicant is an interview. During an interview the staff employee, who is carrying out the selection, should personally acquaint with the nominee in order to identify his personal qualities and provide him with all the necessary information about the organization and future work. He should also determine the interests and expectations of the applicant and to discuss other issues such as career opportunities and the chances to get this job.
If the employing organization is satisfied with the professional level of the applicant, the contract is concluded. Typically, the conclusion of the contract is preceded by a variety of studies carried out by both the employment services and human resources department of the organization-employer, as well as by an internship at the company, which tests business and professional qualities of the hired. The probationary period shall not exceed three months. Thus, examining the main phases of the recruitment, the next question arises - how and where should the employer look for personnel?
Sources of staff attraction are the spheres and the specific places in which the recruiter selects candidates for vacant positions in the organization. Sources could be internal or external. It is necessary to consider the advantages and disadvantages of both types of sources in to determine the most appropriate of them during the selection of workers.
The external sources are any sources which are outside the organization. The hiring of workers from the outside sources is most of all suitable for staffing of lower positions. The advantages of the external sources consist in the fact that they provide an opportunity for the selection from a large number of candidates, and, also, presuppose lower training costs. The disadvantages of the external sources are connected with the with the risks that the candidate is not known person, with candidate’s poor knowledge of the organization’s features, as well as with the possible conflicts between new and old employees.
The internal source of staff attraction is the organization itself. The greatest efficiency of this type of source appears during filling vacancies of middle and upper levels. Advantages and disadvantages of this source are in many ways opposite to the advantages and disadvantages of the external sources. In particular, a significant advantage of the internal source is that the organization could plan the training process. The use of company’s personnel for filling the free vacancies allows saving the wage fund. Internal recruitment is relatively safe because the new position occupies a person who is already known to the organization. Finally, he stimulates the workers because he provides them with the opportunities for the career growth. The disadvantages of the internal source are the additional costs for retraining and the increased competition within the organization. Besides the different sources of the staff attraction, there are also different recruitment methods.
Methods of personnel recruitment could be active or passive. In most cases, the organization uses active methods when the demand for qualified labor in the labor market is higher than its offer. First of all, it is the recruitment of personnel, in other words, the establishment by the employer of the contacts with those who represent the interest. The organization could also carry out the recruitment through conducting presentations and participating in job fairs, feasts and festivals. Presentations help to attract casual passers, people who live nearby, and those who are looking for additional earnings. Job fairs are primarily intended for those who want to change their jobs. Celebrations and festivals attract the qualified professionals interested in particular organizations.
The employers use passive recruitment methods when the labor supply in the job market exceeds demand. One of the varieties of passive methods is the placement of vacancy announcements in the internal and external media. The advertisements should form the image of the organization. They should not contain discriminatory aspects, but should be catchy, interesting, concise, well-written, legal and faithfully reflect the requirements for applicants, working conditions and pay.
The success of the organization largely depends on what kind of people work there and how each employee is efficient in his place. However, the number of errors during appointing is still big, and every such mistake costs a lot for the organization. During the hiring process, an employer may face many problems. The first challenge could become the lack of clear understanding of who is needed, what requirements the candidate must meet and for what duties he is required. As a result, the search for the right employee could take a long time without success. The inability to identify the source and method of searching employees according to the position may also cause difficulties. As a result, a lot of money and time are spent without the results during candidates search. Another problem is the unprofessionalism of the employee engaged in the selection and his misunderstanding of what competence and what features should be evaluated during the selection. This incompetence leads to an incorrect (too low or exaggerated) assessment of the professional and personal qualities of the candidates. Finally, the lack of adaptation program for the novice, which results in the delayed start of his independent work, could also cause many challenges. However, if in the selection process are engaged competent and mature professionals who have practical skills of conversation, can relate abilities of the candidate to the requirements of the vacancy, are able to use various modern techniques and personnel search sources and know how to conduct trial periods, then the before-mentioned problems could be solved. The United States could be a good example of the country in which the system of personnel selection uses modern technologies and reaches the highest level.
Most companies in the United States use the traditional principles and methods of staff selection and focus fundamental attention on the specialized knowledge and professional skills of the candidates for the vacant post. For a better understanding of the recruitment system in the United States it is needed to examine the selection criteria, specific features of personnel management, its methods of internal and external recruitment, and also the orientations of the companies and corporations in the chosen country.
The most famous criteria for the American recruiting companies are education, practical experience, teamwork, psychological compatibility. US organizations often conduct testing to identify the above-mentioned factors.
There are some peculiarities in the recruitment system of the USA. First, it should be noted that the individualistic principle is the general basis of the USA personnel management system. In the American managerial process bright personalities, capable to direct the activity of the organization in a better direction, take the highest positions. Also, personnel management system is characterized by a high degree of centralization. Typically, it is ruled by the top administration of the companies. Therefore, human resources services defend only the interests of the company and not of its employees. The employees protect their interests through trade unions that exist in every enterprise.
US companies focus mainly on the narrow specialization of managers, engineers, and scientists. Experts in the US are often professional in a narrow area of knowledge, and, therefore, their movement up the corporate ladder occurs only vertically, an employee makes a career in a particular field.
Overall, it seems reasonable to assume that modern technologies of personnel selection could help every organization to improve its work and profitability. There are three main steps of personnel selection: pre-selection of candidates based on the submitted documents, examination and interview. Methods of applicants’ attraction are divided into active and passive. Active methods are applicable to workers of mass professions with medium and low levels of qualification. In order to attract highly qualified professionals, with a narrow specialization, the passive methods should be used. The sources of personnel selection are divided into internal and external. External sources are any sources, which are outside the organization, and internal sources are the organization itself. Of course, during the search many problems may occur, such as unprofessionalism of the person involved in the selection, the lack of information about the candidate, the inability to identify the source of the search or to select the required method. To cope with such problems helps the knowledge of the person who carries out the selection of modern recruitment technologies, as well as the ability to apply them in practice. The work, also, considered recruitment principles in the United States, and it can be concluded that this country differs from other by the highest degree of individualism and centralization of management systems. Thus, having considered the key modern recruitment technologies, it can be argued that the understanding and application of the given knowledge by the professional can bring the businesses to a new, more efficient and profitable level.