Contemporary leaders of the marriage counseling and marital law luminaries unanimously stress that nowadays the role of the marriage advisory institutions has become immense. Marriage counseling is being utilized with the intent to save marriages from a breakdown, to eradicate the sources of distress and to accomplish other important goals of the successful marriage and to accomplish other adjacent goals.
Some scholars vigorously dispute the fact that marriage counseling is indeed important for the community, whilst their opponents are firmly convinced that counseling is the indispensable element of the normal marriage culture. Arguments of the both sides are highly persuasive and naturally they are to be subjected to the most scrupulous examination before the inferences are made.
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of the marriage consultancy in the contemporary marriage formation and process and to conclude whether the role of the marriage counselor is really indispensable to the construction of the effective marriage.
Marriage Consultancy Marriage consultancy
The marriage consultancy process also defines it as the information that may be used hypothetically to make the decisions in relation to future programs. Marriage consultancy methods are designed to serve three primary purposes, planning, development and accountability of the program. There are various approaches/models that can be utilized to evaluate programs, depending on the type of the program the purpose, and the needs for the marriage consultancy process. The aim of this essay is to outline basic approaches and to analyze and compare various models of program marriage consultancy; summative and formative marriage consultancy, developmental marriage consultancy, utility focused marriage consultancy, participatory marriage consultancy and theory driven marriage consultancy.
The method, of the marriage consultancy influences the way billions of dollars are spent.
The ultimate goal for the utilization of the money is not taken into consideration. These programs are social in their nature and are often utilized to curb poverty, crime, social inequality and health-related problems of the humanity. (Palmer, 2001). The human based social programs that combat various illnesses in the society need to be assessed in order to distinguish the effective ones and those being not effective to enhance the efficacy of the program. This is a main reason why marriage consultancy programs are launched. Program marriage consultancy is closely related to policy analysis, as policies are implemented through various programs activities. Program evaluator has to analyze/ evaluate the program to understand why a particular policy was more or less successful. There is often a disconnection between the policy making process and the outcomes, or in other words the ultimate results of the policy. Evaluating social programs has also implications for designing policies that would reflect the needs of program users/program participants and the stakeholders. “Marriage consultancy is by its nature a political activity. It serves the needs of the decision makers, results in relocation of resources, and legitimizes who gets what. It is intimately implicated in the redistribution of basic goods in society. It is more than a statement of ideas; it is a social mechanism for distribution, one which aspirers to institutional status. Marriage consultancy should not only be true; it should also be just. Current marriage consultancy schemes, independently of their genuine value, reflect justice differently. And justice provides important standards by which marriage consultancy should be judged.
Program marriage consultancy is similar to the engineering process, i.e. connecting the theory based marriage consultancy methodology to practical issues and implementation . Unfortunately, many reports written after these marriage consultancy processes normally end up gathering dust on bookshelves. Many of them remain unread and never used. This essay examines various approaches of the marriage consultancy in order to establish the one that is considered to be the most useful and mostly utilized by the international community. Besides, the similarities between various approaches for marriage consultancy process are subjected to meticulous analysis
Marriage Consultancy Issues
For the purpose of marriage consultancy it is important to distinguish between social research and marriage consultancy. Both, Hughson (2003) and Patton (1997) has pointed out that, while marriage consultancy is closely related to the traditional social research, two processes shall be distinguished and have different purposes. It has been stressed that the purpose of a research is to discover new knowledge, establish truth, test theories and generalize across time and space. The aim of a program marriage consultancy is to communicate resolutions , ascertain alternatives , outline enhancements , and to provide information about programs and policies within the frontiers and limits. Both, marriage consultancy and the traditional social research use methodologies that are similar outwardly . However, due to the fact that marriage consultancy occurs only within an organizational and political context, political dexterity, the ability to manage a program, group skills and being sensitive to numerous stakeholders are required for a success. Generally, the social research does not require many of these skills. In this essay, I will look at a general idea of what marriage consultancy is being contained of, as well as the issues involved in the field and the terms used.
The ultimate goal of many marriage consultancy processes is to come up with a feedback which can be useful to stakeholders. These stakeholders include but are not limited to administrators, sponsors, donors, client-groups, staff as well as other constituencies being relevant to the process. This feedback is quite useful to these stakeholders because they generally rely on the feedback to take important decisions. “Most evaluators…describe values held by stakeholders, determine criteria they use in judging program worth, find out if stakeholders think the program is good, and see what they think should be done to improve it. The claim is not that these values are best; but that they are perceptions of program worth that grist against for the mill of decision making…Stakeholders based approaches…solicit information about stakeholder interest in the program and its marriage consultancy
Researchers generally have a convergent opinion that a link between the process of marriage consultancy and the impact it has on the program is often complicated. This means that the feedback does not always influence the decisions made in a short term. Even though it does not always influence on such short term decisions, the main goal of conducting the marriage consultancy is to help making both short- term and long-term decisions
Formative and Summative Marriage consultancies
There are primarily two types of marriage consultancy that could be done for different purposes. Scriven identifies two alternatives; formative and summative marriage consultancy. Formative marriage consultancies improve program or performance by influencing immediate decisions about the program, especially about how its component parts and processes could be improved. Summative marriage consultancies judge program worth by assessing program effects in light of the relevant problems. Formative marriage consultancy is a kind of marriage consultancy that facilitates to improve a policy or a program. Summative marriage consultancy, on the other hand, is a type of marriage consultancy that is useful in assessing the value of an marriage consultancy program. As Patton (2002) suggested, it is important that the merit or the worth of the program has been assessed in order to determine whether or not the program should be sustained, scaled up or discontinued. However, the two types of marriage consultancy, summative and formative marriage consultancies, are very of considerably rigor . The two methods are only effective when used on the work being definite by nature. Definite work can be paused in order to allow for the marriage consultancy to be conducted.
Williams (2005) confirmed that there are numerous types of marriage consultancies that can be used. The choice of the type of marriage consultancy to be used depends on the object that needs to be evaluated. Also, it depends on the reasons why it needs to be conducted. According to Campbell (2002), there are two main types of marriage consultancy, i.e. summative and formative marriage consultancy. Formative marriage consultancies are very useful because they are able to improve or strengthen the object evaluated. Through formative marriage consultancy, the way in which the program is delivered, is being examined as well as the technology used and the quality of implementation are being assessed.
Formative marriage consultancy also examines the context of any organization, the kind of the personnel employed by the program, the procedures used as well as inputs. Summative marriage consultancies, on the other hand, examine the outcomes from the process. Formative marriage consultancy is focused on the summary of everything that happens after the program or some kind of technology is delivered. The assessment is being conducted to determine whether the program has achieved the desired results or not. The overall impact that the program has had on people or a community is also assessed and the estimated costs of the entire project are being evaluated.
According to Patton (2002), formative marriage consultancies are typically conducted in the course of the program, even as the implementation process is ongoing. The main reason for conducting formative marriage consultancies is to improve the program or to correct some problematic areas. The program is being examined and described in details. The outcomes of the program are also considered. Summative marriage consultancies are different from formative ones because, unlike formative marriage consultancies, they are only conducted on the programs being well-established. They allow policy makers to arrive to important conclusions concerning the program and decisions concerning the future of these programs.
Developmental Marriage consultancy
Palmer (2001) describes developmental marriage consultancy as evaluative processes, including asking evaluative questions and applying marriage consultancy logic to support program, product, staff and/or organizational development. The evaluator is part of a team whose members collaborate to conceptualize, design and test new approaches in long term, ongoing process of continues improvement, adaptation and intentional change. The evaluator’s primary function in a team is to elucidate team discussions with evaluative questions, date and logic, and facilitate data based decisions-making in the developmental process. Developmental marriage consultancy is an approach to evaluate the focuses on the outcomes it provides. It has been found to be useful especially in the situations where the outcomes are being expected to change from time to time. Developmental marriage consultancy has emerged as being particularly suitable for the programs being in the process of development (Campbell, 2002). Developmental marriage consultancy is also suitable when the innovators of a project wish to establish the connections existing between social changes that are short-term and those that are long term ones. When innovators are working on the project that is continuously evolving, they do not have a model standardized and the developmental marriage consultancy is the best approach for them to use. The right purpose and goal of developmental marriage consultancy “should be to get social innovators who are, often by definition, ahead of the evidence and in front of the science, to use tools like developmental marriage consultancy to have ongoing impact and disseminate what they are learning
Developmental marriage consultancy mainly focuses on the documentation of the decisions made and formalizing the lessons learnt. It is the knowledge gathered from these studies that will determine the decisions made by innovators (Kibgsbury,2001). Developmental situations normally require one to keep adapting to changes, to look beyond slow improvements and to respond to the changes in the environment. The people involved in these kinds of projects are normally the innovators that are willing to test new things. Developmental marriage consultancy is designed for such people that desire to go where no one else has gone and tried the things that no one else has tried doing in the past
It was not until recently that the concept of developmental marriage consultancy finally has taken off. The success of developmental marriage consultancy actually coincided with the growth of systems thinking and the complexity of the scientific approaches. These are now being applied to the examination of social services and health-related services as well
Developmental marriage consultancy serves the needs of innovative programs that are not like programs or projects which are standard. People that innovate are not like those people implementing regular programs. Most of the time, innovators need some things to move very fast. Such value feedbacks are rapid and quick. They are a group of people that tolerate ambiguity. They are quick to embrace uncertainty and willing to adapt to new conditions, which keep changing and resist targets that are present. The outcome of innovation is never clear or measurable from the beginning. Innovators are motivated by vision and no other factors are considered by them
Developmental marriage consultancy is an approach to marriage consultancy that is developed specifically for innovators. This is because innovators require an approach to marriage consultancy that fits into their innovative spirit and their fast way of doing things. These kinds of people feel comfortable tackling dynamic. The program systems, which are complex and dynamic, are the kinds that characterize the world in which these innovators are working and living. They work within the developmental marriage consultancy approach that can deal with the complex nature of their job. This is true because many of marriage consultancy practices that are based on traditional marriage consultancy approaches cannot manage the challenges that come with a complex process. Complex projects/programs are the ones where it is not very clear how the desired results will be achieved based on the high level of uncertainty of the outcomes. This is especially important when evaluating programs that involve human factors and programs based on the relationships. The expertise of the evaluator in such marriage consultancies might help but the relationships are the key factor in marriage consultancy process. In such projects/programs, the main stakeholders disagree from time to time about the things that need to be done and how they should be done. Such projects cannot really be controlled as they operate in the environment where many dynamic factors are constantly interacting. The projects are nonlinear which means that actions considered as small are able to produce reactions that are very large. There is also the emergence which involves the occurrence of patterns as a result of interacting agents. There are also adaptations which are quite dynamic. They involve agents and elements responding and adapting to each other.
It is the developmental marriage consultancy, in Worthen's view, which is able to meet the necessities of the innovators. This is because developmental marriage consultancy allows innovators to apply complex concepts able to enhance the use of innovation. Developmental marriage consultancy is the approach that allows social innovators to focus on an item or a project developed and to engage more into the process of innovation. Developmental marriage consultancy is the approach to the marriage consultancy which allows for a program to be evaluated during the real time and dynamic process. This means that when developmental marriage consultancy is being used, the program is evaluated as it evolves. Developmental Marriage consultancy is also able to adapt to the complex systems of these innovations. Developmental Marriage consultancy monitors and assesses:
o The changes in the relationships between the components of a system.
o The appropriateness of the boundaries we use for the components of the system.
o The different perspectives about what changes and how it changes through a
developmental marriage consultancy.