Various scholars argue about the need for the historical analysis of the past events. They support such claims with arguments that these explorations enhance the understanding of the history. Moreover, such investigations develop the historical thinking that is obligatory for the politicians and people at various leading positions. History knows any possible cases of wars, peaceful resolutions, positive and negative repercussions of the regulations in the countries and so on. That is why the knowledge of such events and the ability of the comprehensive historical analysis enhances the experience in the resolutions of various issues. Consequently, the following paper argues with the significant events in the Korean and Japanese history of the 16th century. Furthermore, it discusses the cause-consecutive factors that scholars connect with the invasion of Korea in the period from 1502 to 1598. The study presumes that Hideyoshi’s invasion of Korea significantly changed the situation in the North Eastern Asia in the 16th century.
The Historical Preface of the Conflict
Scholars claim that the Korean peninsula have been at the forefront of the international news scene in the past as well as in the recent years. Its strategic location has been raising the need for the struggle for power with the involvement of its neighboring countries. For instance, the ancient state of Old Choson was invaded by the Chinese. Consequently, it was by Han China in 109 BCE and by the Sui and Tang dynasties afterwards. Likewise, the later historical events involve the military conflicts with the Japanese. Thus, historians claim that the Japanese invasions performed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi were the most significant among the mentioned events.
It is important to mention that the scholars regard the last quarter of the 16th century as the period of the Chinese domination. The Ming dynasty ruled the country at that time assuring its military power in that region. Historians claim that by 1592 Japanese attacks on China had a form of pirate raids. However, the situation drastically changed in 1591 when Toyotomi Hideyoshi reunited Japan. Hideyoshi’s unification involved numerous military campaigns inside the country that ended the civil war. Thus, the country has been united by the one sword. Furthermore, the ambitions of Toyotomi Hideyoshi were not limited by the government of one country. This Japanese warlord and hegemon had particular views on the county’s geography regarding the East Asian territory. Thus, his aim of the conquest of China raised the need for Korean cooperation. In this sense, the Korean geographic position was more beneficial strategically in case of the Japanese conquest. However, the Korean leaders refused to cooperate with Toyotomi Hideyoshi. One of the reasons for this were the principles of Confucius that required Korea’s loyalty to China. That is why one may regard Hideyoshi’s plan of the Korean invasion as the first stage of the attempt to conquer the Chinese territories. However, the first invasions were only partially successful which resulted in the overall length of the campaign. It is significant to point out that though Hideyoshi planned to invade China, he signed the list of agreements with the Chinese regulators to assure their non-intrusion into Japanese military activity. The historians analyze this period from a broad range of documents, agreements, war and personal memoirs as well as the letters.
Analyzing the reasons for the Korean invasion scholars claim that Hideyoshi’s aims were to make China and Korea vassal states. For instance, Turnbull and Dennis argue that “to make China a vassal state … would simply reverse the position that had existed for centuries, whereby China regarded itself as the centre of the world.” Moreover, the Ming dynasty treated the dependent position of Japan as a natural international state. Thus, for centuries China’s hegemony has been supported by the neighbors before the initiation of trade relations. Thus, the vassal countries paid homage to the emperor in China. Furthermore, the emperor gave privileges to the neighboring countries’ nobility and recognized their power. However, Japan has always wanted to be the exclusion from this pattern. For instance, its regulators pursued the aim of making trade agreements with China. The only threat before the 1540s was the Japanese pirates who organized systematic devastating raids on Korea and China. Thus, the trade and military contracts of Ming and Hideyoshi were viewed by Ming as a chance to manage the situation. However, Hideyoshi had other strategic views on the agreements.
The Invasion of Korea
Next, one should mention that the factor that provoked the beginning of the invasion was the Korean refusal to support Hideyoshi. In addition to it, in 1591 he received a greeting letter from the Korean ambassadors congratulating him with the reunification of Japan. Surprisingly, the Korean leaders pursued friendly relations. However, the Japanese leader had a plan of making Korea the vassal of Japan and not an equal partner. Thus, as his plans to receive free passage for the troops failed, the warlord transported 200,000 men on 300 Japanese vessels. Afterwards, the Japanese army split. Konishi Yukinaga moved towards the east coast and the north of Korea whereas other generals moved in other directions to invade the whole country. Consequently, Korea had been captured within a short time. Afterwards, the army prepared for the invasion to China by collecting taxes and amassing military stores.
The Koreans were unable to stop such army that resulted in the Japanese capture of Seoul in a month. However, the Japanese troops ware partially stopped by the Korean fleet under Admiral Yi Sun-sin. The reason for this was partially in the tactical and technical superiority of the Korean fleet. Thus, in a shortage of supplies the Japanese had to stop their military campaign. Thus, the conflict of 1592 was followed by the declaration of a truce in 1593. The terms of peace between Japan and the Great Ming highlighted the recognition of Hideyoshi military power and talent. Therefore, the historians know his proposition to China as “Hideyoshi’s seven articles”. These points include the demands for China and Choson as well as the obligations for Japan. Consequently, this document established the diplomatic and trade relations between Ming China and Japan. At the same time, Hideyoshi regarded Choson as the province of Japan. This situation resulted in economic benefits for all parties of the agreement. Furthermore, the scholars claim that the war with Korea impacted the transition of Japan from medieval to early-modern state. Furthermore, they regard this event to be the major watershed in the history of Korea that included periods of complete devastation. The reason for this was that the Japanese troops practiced the same “pacification” methods as during the civil war. Thus, the conquerors massacred the whole villages including women, children and domestic animals. Consequently, the peaceful resolution of this stage of the conflict was that Hideyoshi was proclaimed the “king” of Japan in case he withdraws his army from the country.
However, the raising ambitions of the king of Japan led to the second invasion in 1597. Thus, the Japanese army of almost 150,000 men defeats a Chinese army near Ulsan in 1598. However, the victories of the Japanese were interrupted by the fleet of Admiral Yi Sun-sin one more time in late 1597. Next, the second wave of the invasion stopped because of the sudden death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
The Chinese View on the Issue
One has to investigate the Chinese view and role in the conflict because this country had been the most powerful in the region. Thus, historians argue with the fact that Ming were aware of the possible Korean invasion. For instance, Turnbull and Dannis assure that “as soon as there was evidence that Japan was planning an officially sanctioned invasion of the East Asian mainland they hurried to warn the Koreans”. The reason for such assumptions was that it has been comparatively easy to reach China having conquered the Korean territory. Thus, in case of the successful Korean invasion, Japan would have got the convenient ground for sending its troops to China. At the same time, there are claims than Ming were incorrect in their views on the awaiting Japanese invasion. The reason for this was that the attacks of the Japanese throughout the latest decades took the form of the pirate raids. However, the evidence of another kind was more precise. Thus, in 1591 the Japanese captured a Chinese merchant that sent a message to the Chinese regulators. The message mentioned 100,000 Japanese troops going to invade the continental part of Asia in the following year. Consequently, the Koreans asked Ming to support the process of strengthening their coastal line. Thus, the Koreans realised they were unable to give an appropriate response to Japanese invaders. That is why the defence of Korea was the primary strategic initiative on Ming.
The Consequences of the Invasion
Consequently, despite historians claim the period of the Korean invasion as the significant event for Japan, its consequences for Korea were severe. As it has been mentioned earlier, the malicious actions of the Japanese troops led to the rapid decrease of the quantity of Korean citizens. Furthermore, the economy of the country was almost devastated because of the destruction of cattle. Likewise, Sandler argues that the invasion resulted in serious damage of the landscape. As the scholar claims, “the famines and epidemics that resulted were harbingers of popular unrest to come”. Moreover, the cultural heritage of the country had also suffered severe losses because the Japanese were destroying the infrastructures and temples.
Judging from the historic perspective, the Korean Invasions were one of the most significant events to the Northeast Asia. Moreover, some scholars compare it to the international wars in Europe and continental Asia. For instance, Lewis argues that it seriously impacted the early-modern Chinese, Korean and Japanese relations. Likewise, he states that if the western civilization wants to investigate East Asia, “the Imjin War is an excellent starting point”. That is why the discussed historic phenomenon is significant for better understanding of the social and economic processes in Asia and the world as well.
Summarizing the presented information, one comes to the conclusion that the Hideyoshi’s invasion of Korea is the most significant event in the history of Northeast Asia. Thus, one should consider the historical contribution of Toyotomi Hideyoshi not only to the Japanese but the history of the whole Asian region. The reason for this is that he united Japan and led it to the historic progress as well as struggled for the domination in the region. Consequently, such ambitions resulted in serious devastation of Korean economy and social life. At the same time, Chinese dynasty Ming preserved its role of the predominant power in Asia. Thus, Hideyoshi’s invasion of Korea changed the balance of powers in the region assuring the rising power of Japan in the future.