Public policy analysis is a dynamic sphere which adjusts to the changes on a constant basis. The essential focus of policy research is placed on utilization of various instruments in terms of identifying the causal effects of diverse policies. Different social experiments are being conducted with the purpose of estimating policy impacts. The article describes the movement toward social experimentation, its advantages and drawbacks, as well as the impact of this movement on the field of policy analysis. Furthermore, it deals with the benefit-cost analysis. Two significant advances have emerged recently. The first one focuses on enhancing the generalizability by implementing meta-analysis. The second one concerns Monte Carlo simulation methods which are used with the purpose of conveying uncertainties in the estimates of defined benefit and cost categories, as well as in the estimate of net benefits for a certain policy. Finally, the article explores the role of the three main actors in terms of ushering policy analysis and benefit-cost analysis toward the mainstream.
Public policy is a constantly developing sphere; therefore, the analysis should reflect the recent changes within the society. In this context, public policy analysis is highly volatile and pliable. Its primary goal is evaluating the political process and their outcomes. Adopting of various innovative instruments substantially facilitates the process of public policy analysis. Consequently, it contributes towards enabling analysts with an opportunity to address the crucial and vibrant changes in order to inform policy debates, which, in turn, affect lives of citizens to a considerable degree.
The Implementation of Public Policy: Still the Missing Link
Public policy professionals have developed a wide range of models with the purpose of depicting relationships between the process of policymaking and its outputs and implications. Meanwhile, governance theories tend to emphasize the impact of policies in terms of government performance in the event of policies implementation through a network of administrative systems, which can be featured as the set of actions undertaken by public officers throughout all levels; public policy models tend to de-emphasize it. The article focuses on the ways, how theories regarding governance versus public policy might better complement each other.
According to the article, the policymaking process happens within the context of governance. In order to make policy theories more insightful, it is essential to include the multiple levels of governance within administrative systems. Similarly, public policy theories require adaptation to a hierarchical logic of governance. Thus, the policy context becomes substantially more specified.
The Impact of Public Opinion on Public Policy: A Review and an Agenda
The main topic of the article deals with the impact of public opinion on public policy. The author examines the amount of the abovementioned impact, evaluates the outcomes, determines to the extent, to which public opinion impact may be mitigated by various stakeholders, such as various social movement organizations, political parties, interest groups, and elites. Furthermore, it questions whether the level of responsiveness of various governmental institutions to public opinion has been changing over time.
The impact of public opinion on public policy is undeniable. It is crucial to point out that the salience plays a vital role in enhancing the impact of public opinion. Moreover, the more salient an issue is in terms of the public, the higher level of interest and, thus, relationship towards the issue. However, when a research is being conducted, it implements available data which consists of a limited variation of issues. Therefore, the available data can be considered biased since it focuses mainly on salient issues regardless of public opinion on a less significant one.
Global Public Policy, Transnational Policy Communities, and Their Networks
The article mainly deals with the concept of global public policy. The main concerns represent the location of its enacting, along with its executors. The article identifies the boundaries within transnational policy, where global public policy is conducted. It also divides the policy on levels at which it is implemented, particularly global and regional. Another significant topic raised by the author of the article is the role of policy networks since delivery of global public policy does not rely on a single contributor.
Global public policy became essential since the emergence of such concept as globalization. The world is interconnected; there is no country that is truly independent since each one of them relies on other to a certain extent. An effective implementation of global public policy inevitably requires a thorough coordination of efforts realized in the international arena. Although the processes of global policy are distinguishable from national ones, they have a substantial impact on the processes within the country.
Issues in Reconceptualizing Public Policy from the Perspective of Complexity Theory
The main topic of the article is based on the essential concepts of complexity theory. It is crucial to point out that these concepts play an essential role in terms of understanding public policy processes. Furthermore, various issues that articulate a complexity of theories in public policy are being analyzed. These issues include the definition of policy systems, as well as understanding the underflows of self-organizational process.
The fact that policy processes are complex is undeniable. However, it contributes towards the further development of a complexity theory of public policy. Although this theory is rather prominent, it does not offer considerably distinct benefits. Moreover, it represents an overlapping of various already existing theories. Nevertheless, complexity theory contributes towards a better understanding of diverse policy processes.
Intersectionality and Public Policy: Some Lessons from Existing Models
Intersectionality represents an underdeveloped concept in terms of policy discourse. The relative novelty of this concept complicates the overall process of policy analysis. The article contributes towards the better understanding of intersectionality and its definition, points out the arising challenges which are related to this concept and shows the benefits of implementing this approach in public policy.
Despite the fact that this approach is relatively new, it has already proved to be significant in terms of its implementation within the domain of public policy. Furthermore, it gradually evolves and is now applied in a variety of disciplines with the purpose of a profound research. The peculiarity of intersectionality lies within its complexity and involvement of various overlapping spheres, which makes it substantially distinct from the vast majority of approaches.
Whither Civil Defense and Homeland Security in the Study of Public Policy? A Look at Research on the Policy, the Public, and the Process.
Public policy evolves along with policy processes since they are closely interwoven and represent an essential reciprocity. The amount of researched issues is growing at a high rate; however, there are still numerous aspects that need to be thoroughly examined and evaluated. Thus, scholars have started to shift their focus towards security and defense as the means to both inform policymakers and advance the theory of policy making.
Public policy is a constantly changing sphere, which requires thorough research and implementation of various innovative instruments in order to facilitate the overall process of analysis. In order for the policy to be secure and robust, public policy makers need to implement various aspects of civil defense and homeland security which were researched comprehensively by scholars. This implementation will contribute towards essential benefits in terms of public policy both in theory and practice.
Agents of Change: The Role of Public Managers in Public Policy
The primary concerns of scholars in terms of public policy address the factors that mainly influence legislative policy adoption or policy outcomes. In this context, policy adoption and change become the priority aspects for the policy theory. In addition, policy process is predominantly based on the creation and further implementation of a policy instrument.
It is essential that policy makers evaluated a defined policy instrument thoroughly with the purpose of obtaining a desired outcome. Nonetheless, the abovementioned process is not perfect at all. The reason behind this lies within the scope of perception and belief that certain policy will lead to beneficial consequences in terms of personal interest; however, it doubts the primary destination of public policy.