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Introduction

The first industrial revolution took place more than two hundred years ago. It was mainly characterised by the invention of weaving machines. Additionally, it has led to the replacement of manpower by the machines in approximately all areas of manufacturing. Finally, it has led to the huge rise of productivity.

Starting from the first industrial revolution, the term technology has been inextricably linked with the mechanisation of production process. All major technological advances that took place before the first industrial revolution had been associated with the replacement of muscle strength with the power of draft animals, and then the power of wind and water. It required a lot of inventions to be discovered, before people learned how to fully harness the power of the horses and buffalos.

In comparison with the slow changes prior to the first industrial revolution, the pace of change in the socio-economic structure of society, which determines the organisation of the city and the settlement as a whole, has become similar to a rapid stream during the revolution. The changes happened due to the appearance of the latest technologies, and this was an issue that made a magnificent push to the development of the first industrial revolution. This assumption will be proved throughout the paper by means of comparing the past and present situation in the world of technology and its development.

The First Industrial Revolution and the Contemporary Times

Historically, the leadership relationship had been established much earlier than the relationship style 'boss – subordinate.' It had emerged and taken shape in the period of the first industrial revolution (Bruland & Smith 2013). The early stages of the leadership relationship in management can be characterised by the fact that one person occupies a central position in the community, and all the rest are placed figuratively speaking on the periphery. The phenomenon of the control is mainly exercised via the centralised power that dominates the entire community. Leadership relationship still exists in the business sphere being the most common type of relationship (Hosfield 2015).

If to compare the first industrial revolution with the contemporary situation, it becomes evident that the researchers adopted a tendency of predicting a return to the semblance of craft and handicraft, which had been overthrown during the first industrial revolution (Beckett 2014). Among other things, the single home workers of the future are seen sitting in their homes in front of personal computers connected to a straight cable or a telephone line with a central computer of the employer. The development of timekeeping technology as well as production of clocks and chronometers was correlated with the general development of industrial production, and at the end of the reporting period, timekeeping was one of the aspects that characterised the first industrial revolution (Hosfield 2015).

 

The direction of restructuring the national economy had been affected by several aspects which were of great importance. Such factors as the results of individual private election, methods of business management, standard rules, existing constraints and incentives as well as the specific use of new technologies made their contribution to the development of the first industrial revolution.

In the era of the first industrial revolution, a tool in its exact meaning was passed from a person to the mechanism: the machine replaced the simple tools. The most complicated gear consisted of transmission belts, moving rods, shafts, cams, gears and intermediate devices of various kinds. They were aimed at transmitting, distributing and regulating the steam coming from the car by the driving force. Upon request, the shape of a circular-motion tool changed, for example, was converted into a reciprocating one.

The Technology's Prevalence

Furthermore, another argument of the technological prevalence and the main cause of the first industrial revolution is that the recent advances in technology have been based on the results of the number of inventions that define modern technology (Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink 2015). They are referred to the past century; hence, it means that it is not so simple to distinguish between the timeline of the first industry revolution. In general, it is believed that the first industrial revolution began in England in the 1740-1780s and then spread to other countries across Europe and the United States (Bruland & Smith 2013). The term was invented much later and became widely used only the last decades of the 19th century (Bruland & Smith 2013).

The life in Europe and North America started to change as a result of the first industrial revolution, social revolution and reforms, which had a tendency to take place in such countries as Germany, France, and some others (Hoppit 2011). This resulted in the productivity growth and improvement of the well-being of employees (Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink 2015). Additionally, it reduced the duration of the working day, expanding educational opportunities and changing the ordinary people's activities. Essentially, the role of science, art and technological progress in the life of the society was magnificent; however, the first fiddle was obviously played by technology.

The natural threshold of practicality was apparently due to ideological exhaustion. It was believed to be the cause of the separation of engineering practice and science. In the field of friction, such a threshold was reached around the beginning of the first industrial revolution. The invention of high-speed trains and bearings for electrical machines demanded fundamentally new solutions based on a deep understanding of the nature of friction. Engineers needed to know some more data specifically why there are certain phenomena. In other words, it was clearly recognised that there was a profound and constant need for a scientific approach to problems. Only technological development could help in this situation.

The majority of the capitalist countries included industrial agglomeration and sometimes urban agglomerations solving the most obvious problems of the time. In Europe, for instance, there had been similar industrial education to the old one, originating from the pre-revolutionary time and completely new.

The most important role was played by the patent system which had been introduced in order to control the flow of production. The economists have counted that the benefits which were brought by the appearance of patents had risen magnificently. Patents were known to play one of the sustaining finctions in the lights of the revolution, since they performed a function of a fixed right for manufacturing.

The extent of urban education in recent years has been steadily increasing, and it had been expected that this process will continue to be intense in the coming years (Trew 2014). Certainly, there are significant differences in terms of the technical level of the agglomerations (Morris 2012). The recreational activities, rehabilitation and reconstruction were carried out more frequently in older metropolitan areas, which was more logical due to the implementation of the new technologies (Bruland & Smith 2013). However, the measures taken did not always comply with the existing hazards. The harmfulness of the new technologies, despite the fact that they pushed the industrial revolution,in some cases may mean more than the scientific development (Hoppit 2011). The classic era of capitalism is the first industrial revolution which used to consist of two classes represented by the bourgeoisie and wage workers (Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink 2015).

The Location of the First Industrial Revolution

All the inventions which had been made in these countries rapidly became known throughout Europe and overseas. France frequently assumed that the dynamics of the industry in the country proved to be non-linear: after the initial take-off from the 1860s to the end of the century recorded a marked slowdown that was overcome only with the onset of the 20th century (Staton 2012).

The first industrial revolution was represented by a wide range of important figures: Benjamin Gott, Peter Onions, Benjamin Outram, Dara Guppy, Warren James, William Jessop, etc. The processes, which had been taking place in Germany, were usually explained by the fragmentation of the country; however, it was also noted that Germany was rich in natural resources and capital and had an education system that allowed to prepare a lot of qualified workers in order to achieve excellence in new industries: electrical and chemical ones in particular (Staton 2012). In the US, historians pointed out that on the one hand, the industrial revolution took place with reliance on overseas technology and capital, and on the other hand, initially affected only a relatively small part of the country particularly New England in the North-East (Morris 2012).

The predecessors and controllers of the industrial processes can be regarded as being applied in the Middle Ages centrifugal pendulum stroke equalisers watermills. The rapid development of these areas began only at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, in the era of the first industrial revolution in Europe (Staton 2012).

Conclusion     

The industrial revolution is currently known to be the transition from the agrarian economy, which had been characterised by manual labour and craftsmanship, to the industrial society with a predominance of machine production. The course of the industrial revolution in the different countries had much in common. As a rule, it was preceded by a significant increase in population and often accompanied by a flow of money into the agricultural sector of the economy, while its radical restructuring somehow solved the problem of finding capital and energy. The industrial development was accompanied by the construction of new routes, including roads and railways in the 1820-1830s. They appeared in the United States, Germany, France, Belgium, and in the Russian Empire. The first industrial revolution was aimed at transferring the skills and work processes from manpower to machinery. One of the most important causes of the first industrial revolution was the appearance of the new methods of manufacturing, which served as a push for the mechanism of the new products' development and production. Another cause of the revolution was the desire of people to change the way they lived. The third reason was a sustaining one. It was represented by the growth of production and, as a consequence, by the growth of economical development.

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