Challenges of Urbanization and Immigration essay

Information represented in the eighteenth chapter “The Industrial Age: North, South, and West” and primary sources demonstrate the historical events of the Post-War time and its negative impact on the segregation of America. According to the content of the chapter, the author focuses on the question of evolution referred to immigration and urbanization happened in the North during the nineteenth century. He also raises the reasons for the economic fall of the South and thoroughly examines the term “The New South” connected with progress.

A considerable section of the chapter relates to the development of the West and appropriate comparison with other parts of America. As for the primary sources, they reveal the hidden truth which defines sufferings of immigrants, a negative experience of prostitutes, and struggles of the Indians and Chinese for freedom. The textbook reflects cultural manifestation of the Revolution occurred in the North, South, and West, but the primary sources include precise details based on a particular experience of people who were forced to encounter different hardships due to the violation of human rights and liberties.


Observing primary sources, the authors do not observe the North in contrast to the approach used by Kevin Schultz. In the textbook, Schultz pays attention to the aspects of the development of each region. The Industrial Revolution substantially changed America, but every part had its own long way to the progress in each sphere. In the North, people managed to long for a better life because of gigantic proportions of the factories which contributed to the development of the economic growth of the western cities. The point was that “jobs in these factories turned northern cities into magnets for people far and wide and created a rambunctious urban life”. Nevertheless, it meant that most European immigrants got a chance to reach economic possibilities and some freedom. As a result, such significant aspects of the Industrial Age as immigration and urbanization formed the North of America. Since 1990, the population was increased considerably, and millions of people lived in such cities as Boston, New York, and Chicago. However, there was a huge abyss between the rich and poor, who were used as workers. As for the middle classes, people lived in suburbs, and therefore, the population could work in the city and get home thanks to the existence of the railways.

Information represented in the fifth source gives anyone an opportunity to imagine the life of young female immigrant thanks to numerous details referred to the girls’ horrible experience. In the textbook, Schultz observes the North experienced prosperity as the question of immigration was under great concern. People came to the North in search of work but their inexperience and unawareness of the American culture compelled them to encounter various hardships. “America itself provided a tight labor market, and many immigrants came with limited knowledge of English, limited education, and limited work skills”. Moreover, in Galen L. Tait’s “Epitaph on a Tombstone”, the words “Born a virgin, die a whore” illustrate a horrible truth of immigration and the loss of opportunities for women to be equal to men. Meanwhile, according to the primary source called Editorial from the Rocky Mountain News examines the problems of the Indians indicating, “After the battle twenty-tree dead Indians were taken from one of these pits and twenty-seven from another”.

In the chapter, Kevin M. Schultz examines the concept of “The New South” through the prism of slavery and the mastery of the plantation owners which did not allow the economic progress of the country to reach the highest level in contrast to the North. Different leaders inspired the government to reunite with the North for the sake of the development of the economic relations. Moreover, there was no cooperation between the white and black, and even the abolition of slavery did not make African Americans equal. There was a definite separation between southerners, and therefore, a segregated society worsened the industrial progress. Later, “Southern industry grew up around railroads, iron manufacture, textile production, and tobacco”. In fact, the appearance of the railroads allowed southern manufacturers to establish cooperation with the northern rail companies.

This expansion enhanced the production of iron, cotton, textile, and tobacco worldwide, and what is why this caused the growth of the southern industry and economics as well. However, there were some disadvantages of this intensive development due to the particular industrial failures. One of them was the Pennsylvanian growth of the steel industry which gradually surpassed the production of the southern iron. The second one referred to low wages in comparison to those which people could get in the North. Eventually, this segregation in society based on the lack of competitiveness of the black limited the industrial progress by dragging it too far behind. Thus, racial inequality became the most important cause which turned the northern part of America into uncompetitive one.

As for the West, Kevin M. Schultz indicates that the most essential problem of the western part was the division of the soil which limited the Indians’ and immigrants’ opportunities to produce own crop. It contributed to the creation of “The Wild West” based on endless wars between the American government and Indians who struggle against the violation of their liberties. This epoch was covered with blood as a considerable part of the Indian families were relentlessly killed by the American soldiers who performed the orders arranged by the American government. Even if there was the progress in the industrial farming, the conflict with the Indians was not resolved at all. Generally, the situation was awful as African Americans sought land, some northerners sought land to avoid the industrialization of their cities, and new immigrant came to the West in search of appropriate living conditions and work. Of course, such three major industries as mining, railroads, and cattle built the western economics. In “A Bride Goes West”, Nannie Alderson indicates “In the early years of the mining and cattle towns of the West, probably a majority of the women in those towns were prostitutes”. Unfortunately, two groups of people, the Chinese and the American Indians were considered to be outsiders who had no right to possess the land.

Observing the primary sources and making a parallel between the information from the chapter, it is possible to indicate that these authors illustrate different details from the lives of real individuals. Most of them represent facts referred to the difficulties experienced by the western people including the American Indians who die while struggling for their lands as a symbol of freedom, and Chinese girls or African American women who are forced to work as prostitutes. For instance, in Chief Red Cloud’s Speech, Red Cloud mentions “When we first made treaties with the Government, our old life and our old customs were about to end”. His words prove the American Indians become victims of injustice and endless violence. Besides, in one of the sources, Helen Hunt Jackson says that there was time when the authority allowed Governor of Colorado decided to use military troops while organizing a killing campaign against the Indians.

In conclusion, the textbook shows that the epoch of the Industrial Revolution made the progress in every part of the North, South, and West, but there were too many problems which required accurate changes of the policy conducted by the American government. On the other hand both reading have some similarities as Kevin M. Schultz and the authors of the primary sources explain the sense of that destructive period in spite of substantial prosperity achieved by the North.  However, the primary sources use more specific details related to the loss of the American dream for the Indians and young girls who dealt with prostitution.

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Challenges of Urbanization and Immigration essay

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