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It is important to emphasize the fact that the lion’s share of crimes among the population is committed by the substance abused people. For that reason, it is rationally to implement the preventive measures into practice, which are aimed at straightening control over the drug abuse issues in the U.S. First and foremost, drug dealers should be punished more seriously that requires the federal government to allocate more monetary funds to the problem drug dealers detection, their imprisoning and fair punishment. This problem is extremely urgent for the modern society, and this urgency is largely supported by the following statistical and medical information.

Marijuana is the most popular and commonly consumed illegal drug in the United States. The principle of its influence on the human body is the following. The delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) that is produced by Cannabis sativa plant causes the intoxication of the human body and provokes impaired coordination, memory loss for a certain period of time along with the feelings of relaxation and pleasure. There are two forms of the Marijuana consumption such as smoking and eating. In the first case, the smoke irritates lungs and may cause the lung cancer. It can also cause the stomach cancer. One more fundamental issue concerning the Marijuana consumption is that it is often first illegal drug that is used by people later followed by more dangerous and powerful drugs such as heroin and cocaine, which are required by the human body.

While talking about cocaine, it is necessary to rely on the statistical data. There was more that 1.5 million of people in 1997 in the USA who consumed cocaine. The effect from the cocaine and its duration depends on the way of consumption. Among the most common effects of the cocaine consumption are the following: increased alertness and pleasure, paranoia, heart stroke or damage caused by the blood vessels constriction, irregular heart beating and, finally, death. The heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain are the organs the of human body that are the most open to the cocaine injury.

One more popular drug among the youth in the USA is the heroin that is also known as a horse or smack. According to the statistical data collected by the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse in 1997, there were more than 2.4 million of people in the U.S., who used the heroin. Majority of them were people under 26. It is crucial to emphasize the fact that the number of HIV/AIDS-infected among these people increases rapidly because of the dirty needles that are commonly used for making drug injections.

Heroin consumption causes the following effects: pleasure, slowed breathing and drowsiness, abdominal cramps, confusion, aches, sweating and diarrhea. Overdose of heroine (and also of cocaine) usually leads to death, caused by the decreased breathing.

It is also vital to consider the methamphetamines, as a popular drug in the Western countries. It is also called meth, speed, crystal, crank and ice. Like all of the drugs, discussed above, it gives the sense of pleasure to a drug user and also among its consequences are alertness increasing and appetite decreasing. Methamphetamines can be consumed by injections, smoking, eating, and snorting. With respect to the long term effects of methamphetamines’ consumption the following should be considered: depression, weight loss, teeth destruction, abdominal cramps, stroke, high blood pressure, finally, death.

Next issue concerns additional funding, which is required for the criminalization of tobacco and alcohol, which have not become the criminalized substances in the U.S. yet.

While referring to the tobacco, it is essential to pay additional attention to the fact that every year more than 1 million deaths worldwide are caused by the tobacco abuse, and the general turnover in this profitable industry is more than 100 billion. Additionally, people have to pay significant amounts of money for the healthcare, caused by the diseases related to the tobacco consumption.

A number of diseases are caused by the tobacco consumption, including heart diseases, lung cancer, peptic ulcer disease, stroke and emphysema. Also, such negative aspects of everyday life as bad looking, depressions, sleep disturbances and anxiety may be caused by smoking.

While considering alcohol abuse, it is indispensable to stress on the following issues. Firstly, everyday “pick me up” with some slight quantity of alcohol may lead to the alcoholism. Alcoholism is a serious mental disease, which may additionally lead to the heart enlargement and cancer of the stomach, pancreas and esophagus. Moreover, misuse of alcohol leads to more than half of yearly traffic accidents with the lethal outcome. The general cost of the alcohol abuse all over the world is more than $150 billion annually.

 It is obvious that such revenue rate is the meaningful index for the manufacturers of tobacco and alcohol. That is why they are interested in the legality of their business and the payment of taxes to the treasury of the country. Nevertheless, the overall negative impact on the social life, anuses and crime commitment, caused by these substances should be prevented by criminalization of their use.

The last issue, which needs additional funding, is the death penalty measure implementing for the human trafficking. At the moment, human trafficking is considered as one of the fastest growing criminal industry, which is rapidly developing all over the world. Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings in purpose of sexual exploitation and violence, exploitation as a labor force or as the donors of human organs. In all three cases, the pander gets enormous incomes via human pain and suffering.

It is suggested that prostitution comes as a result of trafficking women and children. It is a global problem of monumental scale that cannot be considered as “the oldest profession” and as a fruitful collaboration between wealthy male and female, who wants to earn some money. It is obvious that such social problem should be eradicated in the global scale. Otherwise, if some countries offer such possibility and their governments support prostitution legality, there would be those people who would like to earn big money on both women and panders.

The trafficking women in the U.S. should be stopped by the common work of governments of all countries which are involved into this problem. The rigidity of penalty for those people who organize, execute and consciously participate in the human trafficking process should be toughened to the rate of capital punishment (in the U.S. in particular). It cannot be tolerated that women, who are potential mothers of future human generation, are sexually exploited in order of getting sexual satisfaction by some males and earning money by panders.

It is not acceptable for social life of different folks and cultures to use the “services” of prostitutes because those may crush families and human lives, make a negative impact on the human health and destroy the moral principles of a human being.

The last aspect against of human trafficking is that we live in the 21st century, when human civilization has achieved the high results in all spheres of human life. Thus, after being successful in different areas, the main things to be saved are humanity, morality and spirituality of a human being.

 Directed Patrol for Drugs and Guns

The core essence of practical application for Directed Patrol program implies the use of aggressive traffic enforcement for illegal weapons and drugs seized in high-crime areas. In the case of successful operation, violent crime may be reduced. In 1997, the own version of such program was practically implemented by the Indianapolis Police Department.

The main purpose of directed patrol is the reduction of crime rate in high-crime areas, in particular violent firearm–related and substance-abuse related crimes. With the help of such proactive approach, the police officers are provided with an option of concentration of their attention on high-risk offenders and suspicious activities. In addition, the deterrent effect in high-crime areas may be achieved in such a manner. In this case, the option of removing drugs and illegal guns from dangerous offenders in the streets can be succeeded.

The theoretical approach towards directed police patrol suggests a direct impact on reducing crime activity. In the case of increasing the general number of police, the negative effect on the crime commitment rate would be done. In addition, with the increasing level of police high-crime areas, the stronger crime-control may be achieved. The proactive strategy of policing is applied by directed police patrol. In this manner, the crime preventive measures are implemented into practice. This tactic may be opposed to the strategy, in which arrest take its place after the crime.

In order to minimize the rate of crime, the core focus of directed police patrol should be made on the deterrence theories: specific, general, and incapacitation.

 Deferred Sentencing for Drug Offenders

It is possible to define the deferred sentence as a type of punishment, which is suspended for the term of probation after the crime. In the case when the stipulations surrounding probation is fulfilled by the defendant, the judge realizes the possibility of throwing out the guilty plea and sentence. In other words, the incident may be cleared from the sentence.  If probation is violated by the defendant, the full sentence will be executed by the court immediately.

 In the U.S., in order to receive deferred sentence, the defendant should plead himself guilty to at least one of the crimes, in which one was accused. In the majority of cases, the first time offenders are given deferred sentences. Also, they may be allowed for offenders, who committed relatively minor crimes, but in the case of drugs, the choice for deferring a particular sentence is left to the discretion of the judge.

In New York State, the other name for the similar process is ACOD: adjournment in contemplation of dismissal. In this situation, potential sentence for the term of six months is executed. In the case of leaving the defendant out of trouble, the dropping of charge is made without the offense public record. It should be noted that there are many differences between ACOD and deferred sentence.  One of them is the fact that the guilt or adopted plea of guilty is required by ACOD and is an obligatory issue for a deferred sentence.

 Chemical Castration for Sex Offenders

It is possible to define the chemical castration as the medication administration, which is established for the reduction of sexual activity and libido. The core difference between surgical castration and chemical castration is that the chemical one does not imply the removal of the testicles or ovaries through an incision in the human body. In other words, the person is not actually castrated by chemical castration, and it is not the form of sterilization. Chemical castration is mainly applied as a tool of judicial or public policy for the purpose of punishing sex offenders, even while not taking into accounts the human rights and probability of side effects.

Student Behavior Modification Program

It is possible to define the student behavior modification program as the practical application of behavior change techniques, mainly aimed at increase/decrease in the frequency of behavior. As an example, tone can consider the reactions and behaviors of individual stimulation applying the tools of adaptive behavior or positive and negative reinforcement or the particular behavior reduction through punishment, extinction or satiation. The modification of behavior notion was revised according to the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) form.

The functional behavior assessment is the main basis of behavior analysis. With its help, the core behavior modifications are formed. The set of these therapy techniques and approaches are the specific methods, which are directed for the correction issue.

In accordance with the definition, developed by Martin and Pear, behavior modification has seven central characteristics. They are the following:

  1. In terms of behavior, it is possible to measure the defining problems.
  2. The main purpose of the practical application of treatment techniques involves changing and improvement of the current environment for the individual in order to assist in better functioning.
  3. It is possible to precisely describe the methods and rationales of behavior modification.
  4. Behavior modification is widely used in everyday life in different areas of human activity, especially in education institutions among students.
  5. The principles of learning are the basis of particular techniques (that is why such technique is effective among students). Respondent conditioning and operant conditioning are placed among these principles. .
  6. The strong emphasis of behavior modification is put on the scientific demonstration of the fact that responsibility for specific behavior change lies on a particular technique.
  7. Every student involved in to the behavior modification program is responsible for its results.

Big brother and Big Sister Programs

First of all, it is necessary to put emphasis on the fact that Big Brothers Big Sisters of America is a non-profit organization, which has the main mission to help children in reaching their potential through interpersonal relationships with mentors, who make the positive impact on youth. The main specific feature of these relations is that they are professionally supported.

This organization is one of the largest and oldest establishments in the U.S., which practice the mentoring. Children of all ages are mentored by Big Brothers Big Sisters of America in communities across the country.

In accordance with the statistical data gathered in terms of up to 18 month and the comparison analysis carried out among children, who took part in the program, and with those, who did not participate in it, the following conclusions concerning the program effectiveness may be done.

  • 46% of participants are less likely to use drugs.
  • 27% of participants are less likely to use alcohol.
  • 52% of participants are less likely to skip classes at school.
  • 33% of participants are less likely to abuse others.

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