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“NGO Impact on Law-making: The Case of a Complaints      Procedure under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.”

In this article, the authors bring out the struggle that NGOs have undergone in their effect to transform laws. This is exemplified by the fact that non-governmental organizations have been on the forefront in law making of children’s rights. This was documented in the drafting procedure of the Convention on the Rights of the Children (CRC) as well as its Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict. In this article, it is clear that NGOs have been given the mandate to monitor such instruments. Their success lies in the fact that they have remained instrumental in putting complaints process on the violation of the CRC about the agenda. There is still a level of failure exhibited by the NGOs as indicated in the article. More specifically, the non-governmental organizations failed to impact considerably on the norm-setting itself at the time of drafting the Optional Protocol giving room for a complaints process that had been adopted in 2011.

In addition, the article exemplifies the success and failure of NGOs on the law-making agenda as inclined on their involvement in the state reporting process under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The agencies’ is evident from the insurmountable difficulties that the NGOs faced in putting the Optional Protocol to the Covenant on the agenda. However, the authors assert that despite the difficulties, the agencies succeeded in the end. Similarly, they seemed to experience obstacles in the real norm-setting. It is clear from the article that NGOs have been given a huge task to fight for the children’s rights.     

The Relevance of Realism in International Relations Theory

In this article, the author supports the existence of realism in the political sphere by pointing out that the contemporary aspects of political engagement are still intact. This is evident through the presence of the national state, power, authority, supremacy, national interest, protection, disagreement and war. He adds that although realism can receive challenges from other theories like optimistic and humane theories, it still holds ground to influence the society today.

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