How can the intangibility of computer crime complicate investigations and subsequent prosecutions?
Having researched the available scholarly material and practical findings of the investigators, it can be inferred that the intangibility of computer crime is one of the biggest impediment to the successful resolution of the computer-related crime, since it is practically impossible sometimes to collect and to submit the evidences to the court of law.
How has computer crime been characterized in the past? Do these perceptions hinder investigations? How?
The main difference is that that in the recent past the majority of the computer crimes were perpetrated by the individual computer geniuses willing to beat the system, while nowadays the vast majority of the crimes are committed by the well-organized teams of hackers, since the protective systems evolved
Why are individual victims reluctant to report computer crime? What about private corporations?
The individuals are usually not in favor to start official legal proceedings due to the fact that the stolen information may be privileged or because they were not damaged significantly to commence the investigation. The attacked private entities almost always launch legal proceeding, since their activity is business-oriented and computer attacks may endanger their business.
What are some of the general costs associated with the investigation of the computer crime? How do these differ from traditional investigation? What suggestions can you offer to increase resources available for such?
In contrast to the majority of the traditional investigations conducted by the law enforcement agencies, the major difference is the fact that additional fees shall be paid to expert witnesses, in this very case to computer specialists who are solely capable to track down whether computer related crime indeed took place. For the small-scale business the financial burden may happen to be unaffordable, therefore it is highly desirable to arrange special state or federal funds for these purposes.
Discuss the problem associated with the limited resources available in the most police departments across the country? What can be done to alleviate some of these problems?
The most disastrous problem of the effective anti-computer crime operations is lack of technical facilities and professionals. While the resources of the malevolent are almost unrestricted, the police people are usually limited. They lack professionals and contemporary soft and hardware as well. In order to eradicate this negative trend, the federal or state budgets shall definitely allocate funds to update the software and to hire the specialists with sufficient computer background.
What is meant by jurisprudential inconsistency?
The term jurisprudential inconsistency implicates judicial practice in where the judges deliver different rulings under almost similar substantive matters of the case. The differences in rulings are primarily caused by the differences in lack of experience of the US judges in this type of cases.
Briefly discuss the history of the Internet, including major developments and advancements.
The first attempts to launch a prototype of internet were made in the early 1960 in the numerous research institutions. The first version built of the modern internet protocol was launched in 1982, and since that time the internet evolved from separately operable networks to the unified form of international commerce and communication.
How can bulletin board be categorized? Why are they favored by some deviant subcultures?
Bulletin board is an internet based tool intended for communication of different groups in accordance with the targeted audience thereof. Therefore, the board bulletin can be for social communication, for business needs and for the thematic discussions. As far as their link to the deviant subcultures is concerned, it can be stressed that the deviant subculture use them to discuss their projects and to recruit new members of their organizations.
Discuss advantages and disadvantages of global connectivity?
Pros: a) the people can easily communicate for educational, discussion, cultural interchanges and other socially positive purposes b) global connectivity provides a wide range of lucrative business opportunities c) the technological evolution is progressing more rapidly, since the scientists are well connected
Cons: a) excessive internet based communication inevitably leads to computer dependency and sedentary life-style related ailments and physical deviations b) privileged information can be disclosed as a result of hacker or other malevolent attack c) scam schemes can be launched to cheat money from the gullible Internet users
List and discuss the four alternatives to the disk Operating System or DOS?
The first alternative is globally recognized Windows, the system elaborated by Microsoft Inc. The main advantage of the system is the fact that the majority of the software applications have been developed for this operating system. The disadvantage is the fact that the systems is mostly targeted by the hackers and a biggest amount of all malware has been created to hit this system.
The second globally recognizable alternative is Linux, the system which not so vulnerable to malware as Windows, but which is no in its turn so operable as Windows in terms of available software applications.
What are some of the methods of data destruction employed by malicious users? How are they spread and what are the implications for the future?
Following Peter Gutmann’s algorithm, the data is erased as a result of a complex thirty five stage. At each stage the data is gradually obliterated from the storage facilities of the targeted computer.
The algorithm of data destruction devised by Bruce Schneie includes seven consequentially conducted steps, which ultimately lead to the overall obliteration of the data encrypted on the storage devises. These mechanisms of the date destruction are majorly spread by means of internet and they are disguised in the forms of Trojans and worms malware.
As far as future perspectives are concerned, unless strong anti-malware solutions are elaborated by the internet community the malicious users can reduce internet communication as well internet commerce to zero completely, since the technological advancements now enable them to intercept both the communicational and the business interchange.
The text states that in today’s society the Internet has become the backbone for global communication and transnational capitalism?
Indeed, this assertion is completely truthful. Nowadays, the people clearly demonstrate the trend to communicate by means of internet based tools and traditional mail, live gatherings and telephone conversation are gradually becoming things of the past. Moreover, the internet has affected not the social sphere of life, but the economy as well.
The shift to commerce in internet was made when the internet became a comfortable tool to exercise payments. The rapidity of the transactions has been greatly increased and the importance of the international banking institutions has been equally diminished with the installation of the international internet based payment systems.
Briefly discuss the lack of criminal evidence and the intangibility of law enforcement personnel traditionally have problems with in computer crime cases
In accordance with the applicable statutory United States law governing the procedures, it shall be accentuated that the personal property of the United States citizens is completely inviolable in its nature. Equally well, the personal computers of the US and other countries citizen can’t be scrutinized or by any other means subjected to police investigation unless an order is signed by a district attorney. This imperfection of the law is routinely used as an advantage by the malicious internet users, who happen to by professional enough to obliterate the incriminating data before the order is obtained.
List and Discuss three major categories of computer crime
Cyber terrorism – the cyber terrorists routinely use internet mechanisms to penetrate into the state systems and to upset their activity. In other words, the tax and defense systems can be damaged, if the cyber terrorists are smart enough to penetrate into the system.
Drug Trafficking – with the installation of the internet communicational services, the drug traffickers to seem to have significantly deviated from the conventional methods of drug trafficking. Now, the details of the coming transaction can be disguised in the interne forums and can take the form of the innocent herbal trade.
Commercial Crimes – the passwords from payment systems are routinely intercepted, the banking accounts are wrongfully accessed and the money are virtually stolen in this category of computer related crimes.
Discuss the hindrances that criminal investigators face while dealing with the computer crime aside from the obvious struggle with the ever-changing technological world?
Among the most complex problems of the investigators are strict federal and state restrictions which grant intangibility rights to malicious users. To illustrate it is impossible to confiscate a laptop of a suspected person unless the warrant signed by the judge or by a DA. Another difficulty is the disguised character of the major crimes perpetrated by the criminals, so that these crimes become absolutely latent and cannot be detected unless the harmed person raises his or her claim.
The chapter names six primary motivations for computer intrusions or theft of information in contemporary society
Curiosity – some nerds are attacking servers with information just with the intention to get recognized and satisfy their ego. No monetary or other motives are followed by them.
Monetary motive – the banking passwords and other financial information are intercepted and used to get money from the gullible internet users. Internet scams and Ponzi schemes also fall under the scope of this category
Social motives – sometimes computer crimes are perpetrated to challenge the social structures and to demonstrate personal disagreement with the political course of the society.
Commercial Espionage – very often the servers are broken by the competitors of the company with the intent to get accessed to the industrial secrets and other privileged information which may be used to generate income.
The Activity of the Commercial competitors – very often the competitors hire highly qualified hackers to get accessed to the servers of the business entities and to cease their activity since contemporary business is completely inoperable without permanent internet access to the servers of the targeted business entity, where important information and toolkits necessary for the operation of the firm may be located.