Biometrics is an ever-growing important technology providing a level of assurance not currently provided. Thesis: It is argued that using knowledge of biometrics will be the best security system to protect useful information in the future.
It should be admitted that the terms “Biometrics” and “Biometry” have been used since early in the 20th century to refer to the field of development of statistical and mathematical methods, applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences.
Francis Galton is believed to be the founder of biometrics. Galton, having analyzed a large number of the fingerprints received from volunteers, mathematically proved practical impossibility of coincidence the fingerprints in people.
Biometrics is the development of statistical and mathematical methods, applicable to data analysis problems in the biological sciences.
In fact, biometrics is the technology of personal identification using physiological parameters of the subject (DNA, fingerprints, an eye iris etc.). Therefore, biometric technology based on measurable physiological and/or behavioral characteristics is often considered to surpass conventional automatic identity measures like passwords and PIN by offering positive human identification.
It should be admitted that biometric technologies are actively used in many areas connected with safety access to information and material objects and in problems of unique personal identification.
In fact, two groups of biometric system parameters are allocated classifying biometric technologies. The first group of systems uses static biometric parameters: fingerprints, hand geometry, eye retina, etc. The second group of systems uses dynamic parameters for identification: the reproduction dynamics of the signature or hand-written keyword, voice, etc.
The interest which has recently increased to this problem can be connected with universality of decisions based on biometrics in the world. Many states introduce passport with biometric data. In modern understanding the biometric passport is both the internal passport and the passport for trip abroad which contains the special chip with two-dimensional image (photo) of the owner, a sample of the signature and fingerprints (index) hands of his owner. Besides, the birth date and place, a gender and belonging to nationality will be specified in such document.
It should be admitted, the payment systems have been already entered in shops by means of universal biometric systems.
The usage of biometrics for identification opens a number of unique opportunities. Biometrics allows identifying you by means of yourself. The smart card, card with a magnetic strip, identification cards and keys can be lost, stolen, copied or simply left at home. Passwords can be forgotten and stolen as well. Moreover, constantly developing electronic business and the work with information presented in electronic form demands remembering a set of passwords and personal identification numbers (PIN) for computer accounts, bank accounts, e-mail, international negotiations, web - sites etc. The biometrics offers a fast, convenient, exact, reliable and not so expensive way of identification with a huge number of the most various applications.
The applications of biometric technologies are various: an access to workplaces and network resources, information security, ensuring access to certain resources and safety. Conducting electronic business and electronic governmental affairs can be possible only after the observance of certain procedures on personal identification. Biometric technologies are used in the field of safety bank operations, investment and other financial movements and retail trade, law and order protection, health protection questions and in the sphere of social services. Biometric technologies will play a major role in the nearest future in questions of personal identification in many spheres. Applied separately or with smart cards, keys and signatures, biometrics will begin to be applied in all spheres of economy and private life.
Biometrics is a technology that has been widely used in criminal identification and prison security. The method with fingerprints helps to catch the criminals. In fact, a criminal and civil database exists where a million of fingerprints are registered. Such jump was promoted much by emergence of computer technologies. New systems of automatic recognition of fingerprints (Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems) can start the corresponding algorithm of comparison on a database, operate it and give out results through very short period of time.
In automobile field, biometrics can replace keys with key-less entries. The main feature of the latest car immobilizers is the biometric owner identification by fingerprints. Such technical solution provides an exclusive convenience in operation, as it is not necessary to use any electronic keys or charms for the shutdown of engine blocking. The owner needs to put only a finger to the scanning module for comparison a papillary pattern with the biometric standards registered in the system. An identification of the registered user allows engine starting.
In fact, much federal attention is devoted to deploying biometrics for border security.
In the process of immigration, it is useful to recognize people by facial recognition, fingerprints and retina scans.
Biometrics helps the government to produce new weapons. For the security concern at the international border if they put the biometric censor and somebody is passing the border, they can easily catch him and sometimes if you connect that sensor with gun it automatically shoot as well on marking of biometrics.
There is no such biometric technology which can be suitable for all needs. All biometric systems have pros and corns. However, there are common features which make biometric technologies useful. First of all, any system has to be based on the characteristic which is distinguishable and unique. For example, throughout a century, law enforcement agencies used fingerprints for personal identification. There is a large number of the scientific data confirming idea that there are no two identical fingerprints. The technology, such as identification by hand, has been applied for many years and such technologies as identifications by iris of the eye or based on characteristics of the personal face gain rather big distribution at the present moment. Some new biometric technologies can be very exact. Nevertheless, they can demand additional data for confirmation of their uniqueness. Another aspect is whether each technology friendly or not. The process should be fast and simple. Such as standing before a video camera, telling some words in a microphone or touching the scanner of fingerprints. The main advantage of biometric technologies is fast and simple identification without causing any inconveniences to a person.
I will employ secondary research to gather information for this paper. I will use a mixture of methods to support my thesis and assess the results. Majority of my information will come from case studies in scholarly journals and reports. Some of my sources contain qualitative information, describing useful applications of biometrics. Moreover, I will use quantitative methods to assess the results of my research. I have managed to find out the statistics of biometric methods’ usage. This investigation reflects the following results: fingerprints occupy 59%; face geometry – 17%; iris of the eye – 7%; hand geometry – 7%; veins’ drawing – 7%; voice – 5%; handwriting – 1% and all the rest – 1%. My research proves the predominant usage of fingerprints in biometrics.
It should be noted deplorable events on the 11th of September in the USA have led to the rapid development of biometrics. Searching for dangerous and potentially dangerous persons became the major task. As a result long-term projects gained paramount importance. It is enough to look at figures to understand importance of this idea. Till the 11th of September only 10% of Americans believed it necessary to develop biometrics and after that tragic event the number of adherents gained 75%. Again people started thinking of their safety and biometrics had a good chance to become intensively developing science.
At the present moment the improvement of biometric technologies has happened very fast. First of all, it leads to reliability increasing and cost decreasing for traditional technologies: recognitions on a fingerprint, face and an eye iris.
Alongside with the old technologies the new ones take place as well. A row of them – especially recognition on a three-dimensional face image – has the considerable potential and is capable to change the situation in the biometric market in the future.
In fact, mass implementation of the technologies for passport and visa documents will be the main event in the field of biometrics. This will lead not only to technological changes and improvement of systems available in the market and devices, but will considerably change a way of people’s life. I consider that it will allow increasing safety both of people and society in the whole.
Besides, the function of a biometric authentication system will help facilitating controlled access to applications, networks, personal computers (PCs), and physical facilities.
While biometrics is still an immature technology, the potential benefits of it as part of security systems will drive the market forward.
In conclusion, it should be noted that further development of biometric technologies will significantly change the world. This technologies can be surely not only used for making the life easier, but also for more perfect invigilation.