The modern Ku Klux Klan (KKK) has fragmented into multiple factions that spread the beliefs of Christian identity and believe in the existence of the widely spread Jewish conspiracy. These multiple factions have three main groups of aliases that target economically developed minority groups, such as Jews, African-Americans, homosexuals, catholic believers and specific controversy groups that oppose official government prohibitions. The American Knights of Ku Klux Klan, Imperial Knights of America and the Knights of White Camelia are these separatist and supremacist terrorist groups that where formed within the development of the Fourth/Religious Wave of modern terrorism, which received its popularity from the state sponsors’ neutralization of usage of the radioactive and other explosive weapons for massive attacks. Furthermore, the scientists in the terrorism research fields, political, religious and ethnical violence issues argue that the abovementioned wave will not fade away in the next decade, but will transform into the Fifth/Technological Wave when single individuals of the respective groups can effectively perform arsons by learning about weapons, targets and techniques through unlimited Internet access.
Considering the Religious fundamentalism of these multiple factions and their current protest against globalization, the paper will focus on the study of the KKK possible attack on the downtown district in Detroit, mainly the locations of the religious congregations of Jews and African-Americans, and building of the financial district, which is located in the same area with the abovementioned synagogue and church. There will be a study focused on the theoretical reflection of the practical implementation of the similar attacks that helped to galvanize and launch global movement of oppression, which has specific principals that define terrorist acts, namely diaspora population, sympathetic foreign publics, states and terrorist organization. In addition, the study will emphasize the importance of the lone perpetrator’s extremist criminal activities, which are not investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, according to the specifications of the federal law.
THE OPERATION: PLANNING THE ATTACK
In planning their attack the members of the separate KKK’s groups decided to come to the Detroit city in Michigan and reside in the Corktown suborn for the period of the preparations. The extremists have chosen the Downtown District for the attack, because it includes the highest concentration of the business premises, which effectively contribute to the historic character of the financial district with its state-of-art, high-store office facilities that allow access to the wireless Internet and fiber-optic communication.
The Downtown District is bordered by the Lodge Freeway, Fisher Freeway, Detroit River and Interstate 375 with the main transportation access through Woodward Avenue. Furthermore, the District’s transportation system offers mass transit by bus and an automated people mover system, which operates through a Downtown area by single-track, one –way direction means.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau data, the population of Downtown Detroit district was estimated by 5,287 citizens that included 28,2% of white people, 63,6 % of African-Americans persons, 3,3% of persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, 4,0% of Asian persons and 0,6% of persons reporting two or more races.
After the survey of the area of the possible attack, it has been determined that the Downtown District can be a likely targeted location, taking into account the population of the black persons in that area, frequent presence of the Jewish representatives of business and religious activities, and vicinity of the targeted places to each other, and to the preferred escape roots. These identified areas of the attack are Standard Federal Bank at the 1st Griswold Street, Isaac Agree Downtown Synagogue located at 1457th Griswold Street and The Second Baptist Church, which is located in the Greektown alone Monroe Avenue. The importance of the Standard Federal Bank is determined by the character of the banking industry with foreign partners, number of the branches and percentage of the deposits in the market shares. Although the number of Jews citizens in the Downtown District is not significant, these minority groups are the frequent visitors of the business premises and religious congregations in the city, which amount to 600 worshipers, who attend High Holiday services. The Second Baptist Church claimed the mission of freeing the black slaves, supported the respective minority group to achieve equal rights of the American citizens and influenced creation of 30 other churches, which are controlled by blacks. The abovementioned facts coincided with the KKK’s radical reconstruction’s missions statements.
In the planning of the attack the pretest experiments with disguised suspicious packages, located in the places other than the targeted buildings could be performed in order to measure the police response. Furthermore, the vicinity and accessibility of the route passages for the possible escape should be determined, since the attacks are planned in remote controlled style. For that purpose, location and number of the security cameras in the targeted buildings should be determined and further tactics of using specific detonating methods to be revised, in order to achieve greater casualties.
After the KKK’s group members contemplate the abovementioned information, they might use the following methods to perform the attacks:
1. Target 1. – Standard Federal Bank
The early working hours can be considered the most optimal for the attack, since most of the employees pass the check-in control and stay in the facility. Standard Federal Bank is 8,5 story building with flat roof and main entrance from the Griswold Street, where there are black granite columns and metal gate. The security system of the building includes UL-central station monitoring; checkpoint systems and CCTV design services that help to detect incidents of fire or burglary. Considering the fact that, the building is located on the corner of the Griswold and West Jefferson Street in the close proximity to the McGraw building it would be the best to perform the attack by using remote controlled IED bomb that can be placed in the truck between those two buildings. The bomb will be a wired detonated system that can be operated by the remote controller with the use of electromagnetic impulses from a safe distance of 65 feet away.
2. Target 2. – Isaac Agree Downtown Synagogue is a four-story structure, which is located in the Necklace District Downtown, between the Clifford Street and Grand River Avenue. The mass casualties of the attack can be achieved during Friday Night and Soul Services at seven o’clock in the evening at the same Four Wave Religious Style with using remote controlled IED bombs, since the security protection is increased by police forces and it will be less possible to take the gun inside unnoticeably and perform shooting. Similar attacks where performed in the Birmingham city and brought mass fear and severe casualties.
3. Target 3. The Second Baptist Church is a four-story building with the twin entrance doors. Since the church is open to the public and has no electronic and physical security, it would be easier to perform the attack with semi-automatic silenced weapons. The police response can be checked by the pre-attack fake calls. Furthermore, the attack will be performed by several members of the group, since the predictability of the attack could be expected after the pre-attack calls and will decrease the effectiveness of the actions of a lone perpetrator.
The attacks on Standard Federal Bank and Isaac Agree Downtown Synagogue with the detonated improvised explosive devices is a very real possibility, since these weapons are maid as weather-resistant prototypes, which use short impulses with fast response time. However, these tactics can be easily detected by the police and security forces, since the devices are not buried underground, what can alert current impulses and fail detonation attempts. In the case of the synagogue attack, the possibility of the confrontation with the police will be fewer, but will require the facility’s design investigation, in order to find the precise location for the explosive device.
Taking into account that, there were similar attacks based on the religious fundamentalism, the congregation facilities are monitored by the located police forces. Therefore, the patrol car’s visits to the locations should be timely checked. When there will be a possibility with the police confrontation, considering the shooting arson on the Second Baptist Church, the perpetrators may use Woodward Avenue for escape.
CONCLUSION. CONTIGENCY PLANNING
The possibilities of these attacks in the abovementioned locations should be considered by the respective law enforcement, taking into account the buildings’ designs and their security specifications. Considering the outside influence of the proactive Terrorist Religious extremists, their hit-and-run guerrilla tactics reinforced by the usage of the improvised explosive devices, the police forces should focus their preventive actions in the religious premises, which are open to the public and do not have physical assistance of the police representatives. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the specific attack scenarios that are based on the events of religious fundamentalism and targets that are politically sophisticated, cognitive judgments should be translated into the likelihood of the consequences.
Furthermore, such incidents may take place, considering the fact that, the synagogue is the only Jewish congregation that remained in the Downtown District, and Baptist Church is the most attended facility by the black worshipers. Therefore, these building should apply for the fire design services, and make partnership with the enforcements that will provide them with security guarding. High story buildings such as those adjusted to the Standard Federal Bank and Jewish Synagogue should have an elaborated evacuation plan that will be coordinated with the communication relationship management. These strategic procedures will require all involved to be familiarized with the respective terminology of the fire-fighting actions and Incident Command System. This system is integrated by the responsible emergency management organizations and will require these involved to follow the prescriptions of the command, operations, planning and logistics procedures.
Crisis management communication initiatives are needed to respond the consequences aftermath the attack. These strategies include upgraded hospital’s capability and coordinated response and action with the police forces with the risk and emergency communication initiatives. Considering the character of the possible forecasted attacks, the first emergency vans should be provided with the medications for the immediate treatment of thermal and chemical burns and prepare for further evaluation by a therapist. Furthermore, these immediate actions should also be focused on the provision of the primary survey of the gunshot injuries.
The latest researches in the terrorism investigations state that the current religious wave of the extremism and separatism concedes to the new technological wave, when the lone perpetrator become an important figure in launching global movement of the religious, political and ethnic extremism. Furthermore, the availability of the open-access Internet connections allow the single individuals to learn more about the weapons, targets and techniques that can be yielded into the attack’s planning. In addition, the KKK movement being segmented into the separate factions still looks forward for the radical reconstruction of authority, which will help to eliminate all forms of inequality. Therefore, preparedness and previous cognitive experience of the similar attacks and their ideological statement will increase the mitigating efforts of the terrorism prevention.