In order to have a peaceful and harmonious society, there needs to be a governing body that is able to ensure that these characteristics are achieved. In the past, most countries were governed differently. There were empires and kingdoms, which are collectively referred to as monarchies, due to their characteristic of hereditary rulership. However, the monarchical system of rulership imposed autocracy, so that the citizens had no say concerning the government, which had a full power to rule over them. Therefore, it led to the fact that many people despised the monarchical system of leadership. Consequently, this system was abolished in many countries around the world. Centralization is a system that can be easily compared to autocracy, since in a centralized state the governing procedure is only controlled by a small group of people, formed of the highest ranks of the society. Multiparty democracy, on the other hand, can be described as a type of system, in which there are different political parties. These parties compete for the control of the government by winning the support of the citizens. The society should opt for multiparty democracy, which is better than centralized political systems, because it ensures that citizens can express their views concerning political issues and cooperate with the government that was elected by them.
General overview of centralized and multiparty systems
In order to understand and analyze the two systems properly, there is a need to understand the background of this issue. Therefore, the following part of the paper provides the definition of the terms stated above. A centralized government is the one, in which all communication of the various organs of the government passes through a centralized department. It, therefore, implies that the governing power comes from a single centralized supreme body. It is compared to the latter form of the government, in which the functions are divided among different agencies. In the United States, for example, federal decisions are made by different agencies throughout the state. However, the main decision-making organ is located in Washington DC. This is a place, where all heads of the various agencies reside.
The main objective of political groups is to ensure that democracy is strengthened by giving individuals as well as groups a chance to compete and express their opinions in the political process. In comparison to the centralized political system, a multiparty political system is better. It is true due to the fact that it ensures that individuals, who have various opinions, are able to join together and ask for reforms through communicating the issues, which they think should be changed, to the government. Unlike the centralized system, in which all power of the governing body is located at one particular point, the multiparty system distributes the power among people through the process of democracy.
In centralized political systems the government has the ruling position, since it is able to make high priority decisions on its own. It happens so, because all the power is located at a particular focal point. However, the multiparty political system encourages different individuals, who possess diverse opinions, to participate in the governing process. Multiparty political systems display very significant success rates if the motive behind their functioning is transparent governing as well as rightful implementation of legislation. The only problem that occurs in result of a multiparty democratic political system is the fact that due to the consistent talking and arguing little work is really done.
The multiparty systems are very advantageous since they are able to involve marginalized groups into the governance of the country, including policy making and implementation. The centralization of the political system causes the lack of democracy. It happens due to the fact that centralization encourages bureaucracy and subsequently neglects the needs of the people from rural areas. It means that individuals in the urban areas may have a say in more issues, as compared to the people in the rural areas. Multiparty systems, on the contrary, seek to unite the citizens by developing issue-based platforms, where citizens are able to address the issues, which they have, concerning current policies or other issues of leadership in general.
Analysis of China's centralization system
China is viewed as one of the strongest centralized states. However, over the past forty years there have been some strong tendencies that have threatened to shake the country. These tendencies have appeared in result of the desire for decentralization. An analysis of the country with centralization system may give sufficient information concerning how exactly the system of centralization works in the country, as well as describe benefits and other issues, to which it has been subjected over the years.
China's local government operates at three different levels. The first is the provincial level, which is followed by the county level and, lastly, there is the township level. Each of the provinces represents the initial level of administration and they are subordinated to the central government. These provinces had their boundaries set during the earlier years of the Ming, Yuan, and Qing dynasties reign. However, a small number of regions were not included, especially the ones located in the northeastern part of China. The head of a province has the title of a governor, who is responsible for an area, populated by around 42 million individuals. Therefore, the governors are the leaders that should not be underestimated, since they are in charge of many citizens. Moreover, the Chinese system is characterized by some autonomic regions, which are the place of residence for the minority groups of the country. Each of the regions is headed by a president, who belongs to the ethnic group that inhabits that region.
China has four municipalities that are also the country's biggest cities. These municipalities are subordinate to the central government and they include Beijing, Chongqing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Additionally, the country has special administrative regions such as Macao and Hong Kong, which enjoy enormous autonomy, since both of them have their own judicial systems, currency, and passports. The Chinese government tried to implement soft centralization in order to ensure that there was local protectionism as well as the establishment of a standardized way of implementing and enforcing policies in the country. This strategy was meant to centralize some of the bureaucracies towards the provincial level. In his article, Andrew C. Mertha mentions that the experiment with soft centralization, conducted by Beijing, initially gained some success, but in the long run it also faced some shortcomings. The author explains that due to the soft power of centralization that was given to the government institutional fragmentation there was an increase in the corruption rate. Another issue that the author raises is the fact that according to the centralization strategy the provinces were the main beneficiaries, whereas Beijing was excluded and did not enjoy the benefits at all. It happened mainly because of the concentration of the resources and personnel at the provincial level. Therefore, from these facts it can be clearly seen that under centralization only one party enjoys the benefits, while the other participants are left in disadvantage.
The multiparty democracy of the United States
One of the countries that should be analyzed in this segment is the United States of America. Even though the United States of America allows different political forces to participate in the elections and the political system, it has always been dominated only by two political parties, mainly the democrats and the republicans. However, over time these two parties have been evolving within themselves and eventually have divided into separate branches that can be considered as new parties at the political scene. The democrats, for instance, split into two groups, so that one of them is headed by Bernie Sanders, who leads the politicians that are aimed at social programs as well as lifting the status of the low-earning citizens. On the other hand, there is Hillary Clinton, who embodies the traditional democratic values. Moreover, she is also a representative of the U.S interests worldwide. Republicans have a complicated structure within their party, which is proved by the fact that there are such branches as, for example, the tea party faction that still advocates for the reduction of government spending. Furthermore, there are also the revivalists, who comprise of the Bush family members that focus mainly on the faith-based governing of the citizens. Recently there has also appeared the Trump faction that is highly focused on the concept of isolationism. The faction also tends to promote the concentration on the well-being of less fortunate individuals in the society.
Reducing voting barriers is an important U.S strategy that is applied to ensure that the voter turnout is boosted significantly. However, the main issue that was reducing the voter turnout in the U.S was the fact that citizens did not have many options, from which they could choose. The fact that there was only a two-party political system made people unwilling to vote, since they did not see any diversity in the political parties. According to a conducted research, an increasing number of parties, which would be able to participate in the elections, would increase the number of voters by at least 9%.
The main reason why the multiparty system would be more effective in the U.S is the fact that young people in the country want a more diverse choice. It is explained by the fact that young generation is the future of the nation and it has some progressive ideas, concerning the social issues in the country. Therefore, in order to get them interested in such important issues as voting and to ensure that they exercise their voting rights, it would be better to give them more choice. The multiparty political system is also very effective, since it guarantees that there is an increase in the level of competition on the political arena as well as significantly enhances the voting rights of the citizens. The elections in a multiparty system are normally very competitive. However, in the two-party system, to become the winner, a candidate needs to receive fifty percent of votes plus one vote. Changes in the multiparty system can serve as an encouraging factor, used to ensure that candidates vigorously participate in the campaign and urge their supporters to vote for them in order to be ahead of the completion. Another factor that makes the multiparty system in the U.S an effective idea is the fact that it has been used by many countries as a way for the citizens to express their true views, so it can be applied in the U.S in the same way.
According to the views of Lowell Barrington expressed in his book Comparative politics: structures and choices better representation of the masses is one of the advantages of politics. His notion is connected to the expression of the voters’ views, because a diverse list of political parties means that there is a variety of policies, manifested by each of the political parties. Therefore, it is easier for the voters to find a party, the manifesto of which is in line with their views, so that they can feel that their beliefs are represented in the government and that is why they vote for it.
The historical cases of the other countries
The political systems of centralization and multiparty democracy were used by a number of countries in the past. In the communist party of the Soviet Union, democratic centralism attempted to unite the two opposing factors in the leadership process. These two factors were namely democracy and centralism. The first one was used to enable free and open discussions, while centralism was meant to ensure that there were unity and discipline in the parties. In 1921 at the communist party conference Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks, declared that the party was not supposed to be viewed as means, through which different opinions could be tolerated and freely expressed. He conveyed a message that the party had to be considered as a way to impose power and it performed the role of ensuring the fact that there was extreme discipline, coupled with the proper organization.
The leader argued that democracy encourages the discussion of issues and, as a result, leads to a lack of proper effectiveness and execution of duties by the party. However, he also explained that full concentration on centralism discourages the lower parties from trying to create new ideas. Lenin made an argument that the discussion of new ideas could be tolerated only to a certain point, because once the discussions cross that point, all of them should be stopped immediately. The decision that was made would apply to all members of the party disregard of their views concerning the issue. It shows that the concept of democratic centralism changed and became more concentrated on centralism than on democracy, so that all decisions were made during the party congresses by the top leaders and were implemented without any difficulties.
War lessons learned
There are two factors that characterize the political system. These factors include the electoral factors as well as the division of powers in the government. Once there is a dispute over these factors, there can be a rise of a conflict. In the U.S about 620,000 soldiers joined the military conflict, known as the civil war. The war was started due to different reasons such as the belief that the union could be left unilaterally or due to the issue of slavery, which affected the southern economy. However, in result of this war, four million individuals were freed from chains and it successfully managed to end the phenomena of racial inequality. There are some lessons that were learned from this war. For instance, people changed the perception of the nation itself. Moreover, they understood how invaluable the equality of all men regardless of their color of skin is. They realized that each individual should be provided with the right to vote. There also appeared the understanding of the fact that each individual rather than a certain group of people should be given equal protection by the government.
By looking at the case of Rwanda one is able to see how centralization managed to affect the citizens of the country and provoked them to show inhuman behavior. When the Belgians arrived in Rwanda around 1916, they considered the Tutsi to be superior to the Hutus, who inhabited Rwanda at that time. It, therefore, helped the Tutsis to receive better treatment, as well as to get better jobs and leadership opportunities. It became clear to the Hutus that all the power was concentrated in the hands of the Tutsi and it, in turn, caused a confrontation between the two groups. Most of the people, who died in this war, were the Tutsi. Therefore, the lesson, learned from this war, is that equality among all ethnic groups in a country is very important.
The world of political analysis
Political analysis is the process of separating the key factors in a community and within a political environment. It is done in a manner that ensures that one can identify the main ways, in which they influence progress in achieving certain goals and, therefore, allows developing strategies for dealing with them. Political analysis takes into account the political arenas of different countries. This field provides an analysis of the global trends in order to ensure that the policy makers, as well as analysts, get the context of what they need to do to achieve the set goals.
This paper analyzes the concepts of centralism and multiparty political systems from the international perspective. The characteristics of these systems are analyzed in order to reach a conclusion about the reality of these two factors when they are applied to leadership. The analysis proves that even though centralism ensures that the decisions are reached and implemented faster, it is not more effective than the multiparty democracy. It is true due to the fact that multiparty democracy takes the views of citizens into account. Unlike the centralism system, in which democracy cannot be applied easily, the multiparty system allows for the democracy in the government, since it supports the diverse views of the individuals. Political analysis can be applied to investigate some of these systems, so that it shows how positively or negatively they can affect the governance of a country or a region. The process of political analysis takes place in two stages. The first stage is the description and analysis, while the next one is the description and identification. These stages are necessary for ensuring that the appropriate base is laid for further assistance in the development of the required response.
Basing on the information stated above, it becomes clear that the multiparty democracy is better than the concept of centralism. Centralized systems make it very hard for the government to practice democracy, whereas with the multiparty system it can be easily applied. The reasons of wars that occurred in different parts of the world were either directly or indirectly related to the concept of centralism. While the multiparty system generally promotes the views of other individuals, the centralism system concentrates the power at one point, so that there is a group of individuals, who are able to make decisions and no one can oppose them, no matter how unsatisfied they are. The Chinese effort to introduce soft centralism is an example of how the funds, as well as human resources that are concentrated in the provinces are not really beneficial to the country as a whole. The same happens in other countries, where centralism has been applied. There is a probability that one group of people will benefit more than the other one. For example, people in the urban sector can benefit more than the people from the rural area. Therefore, multiparty democracy is better than centralization.